Stories on Racism, Expatriation in Biography by Haytham Hussein

Book, Racist in Expatriation
Book, Racist in Expatriation
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Stories on Racism, Expatriation in Biography by Haytham Hussein

Book, Racist in Expatriation
Book, Racist in Expatriation

London-based Rameena Publishing has released a new book by Syrian novelist Haytham Hussein. Titled “Racist in Expatriation”, the book is a biography that tells stories about racism, expatriation, identity, language, integration, and conflicts the writer lived throughout his life.

“In eight chapters, Haytham Hussein tells stories, situations, and events that showcase contrasting pictures of racism, in which the daily, shocking behaviors and practices of people have become a part of a maze that drowns many in its darkness.

The book interprets the matter of racism with a remarkable boldness and objectivity and speaks about wounds without fear of details, depicting a journey that features a lot of struggle with life, writing, and humans,” the publisher writes.

“What am I looking for when I tell anecdotes about hidden or seen conflicts? From the colors that could form amazing artworks, and tastes that could harmonize in a civilized texture based on respect and regard, they chose the primitive sides and clashes leading to disasters and constant domination of a pale color that becomes paler with time, and turns into a black, closed world.

Am I encouraging racism and helping growing it when I speak about it, or am I trying to uncover its dark sides in an attempt to strip it from its power that grows in the darkness, and flourishes behind the walls of renewable hatreds?

Each one of us can count many points, ideas, and justifications that could wake up the most powerful racism and discord inside themselves. But is this what we need today in a world that seems to unlock its safety valve and prepare for upcoming explosions in its present and future!” the biography writes.

Haytham Hussein is a Syrian-Kurdish novelist. He has several novels and critical works including “Hostages of Sin”, “Needle of Horror”, “Harmful Herb in Paradise”, and many others. He also translated the Kurdish plays “Who Kills Mammo” by playwright Bashir Malla into Arabic.

The cover of the book is designed by poet and illustrator Yassine Hussein, who chose the painting of Kurdish artist Bahram Hajo for the front cover.



King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Festival to Kick Off in Saudi Arabia’s Al-Qurayyat

The King Salman bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Development Authority logo
The King Salman bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Development Authority logo
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King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Festival to Kick Off in Saudi Arabia’s Al-Qurayyat

The King Salman bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Development Authority logo
The King Salman bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Development Authority logo

The King Salman bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve Festival, organized by the Reserve Development Authority, will take place from April 14 to 18 at the Cultural Center in Al-Qurayyat Governorate.

The festival aims to showcase tourist and recreational sites within the reserve and encourage local community involvement in reserve activities.

The festival offers a variety of events that will take visitors on a fun journey through recreational, cultural, artistic, and awareness activities. These include a children's area with games and drawing, an afforestation and planting area to promote afforestation culture and vegetation development, an artisan's market that celebrates Saudi heritage and traditional crafts, a wildlife area, and a performing arts theater.

The theater will present cultural shows and segments highlighting heritage, history, poetry evenings, theatrical performances, and folk arts.

The King Salman bin Abdulaziz Royal Reserve is the largest wildlife reserve in the Middle East, spanning over 130,000 square kilometers. It has archaeological sites registered with the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).


Royal Commission for Makkah Launches ‘Makkah Greets Us’

The event will host the Revelation and Route to Makkah Exhibitions - SPA
The event will host the Revelation and Route to Makkah Exhibitions - SPA
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Royal Commission for Makkah Launches ‘Makkah Greets Us’

The event will host the Revelation and Route to Makkah Exhibitions - SPA
The event will host the Revelation and Route to Makkah Exhibitions - SPA

In celebration of Eid Al-Fitr, the Royal Commission for Makkah City and Holy Sites launched the second annual “Makkah Greets Us” event in the Hira Cultural District.
The event, taking place until Monday, April 15 is expected to attract more than 15,000 visitors daily.
Visitors will enjoy more than 14 diverse programs tailored for all societal segments, including cultural, entertainment, and historic programs, SPA reported.
The event will host the Revelation and Route to Makkah Exhibitions, which display visual presentations of the descent of revelation and the Hajj routes over history.
Additionally, the event will feature folk art performances, falcon shows, and sound and light shows. It will host a dedicated area for the crafts market, children's activities, and various entertainment options.
Makkah Greets Us is held by the Royal Commission for Makkah City and Holy Sites, in cooperation with the Pilgrim Experience Program (PEP), the Holy Makkah Municipality, the Makkah Chamber, KIDANA development company, and AlBalad AlAmeen company.


Saudi Arabia Announces Inaugural Protected Areas Forum ‘HIMA’

The site at Hima, the sixth to be enlisted in Saudi Arabia, is home to one of the largest rock art complexes in the world and ancient wells. (SPA)
The site at Hima, the sixth to be enlisted in Saudi Arabia, is home to one of the largest rock art complexes in the world and ancient wells. (SPA)
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Saudi Arabia Announces Inaugural Protected Areas Forum ‘HIMA’

The site at Hima, the sixth to be enlisted in Saudi Arabia, is home to one of the largest rock art complexes in the world and ancient wells. (SPA)
The site at Hima, the sixth to be enlisted in Saudi Arabia, is home to one of the largest rock art complexes in the world and ancient wells. (SPA)

Saudi Arabia announces the Inaugural Protected Areas Forum ‘‘HIMA’’, a groundbreaking event in the region dedicated to the conservation and preservation of natural habitats and wildlife, SPA reported.

Under the patronage of Engineer AbdulRahman Al-Fadli, the Minister of Environment, Water, and Agriculture and Chairman of the Board of the National Center for Wildlife (NCW), this forum organized by the National Center for Wildlife will be held in Riyadh from April 21-24, marking a significant milestone with both local and international participation.
The forum will feature a comprehensive agenda filled with panel discussions and presentations by renowned experts in the field of protected areas from around the globe.

Attendees will include representatives from protected areas, educational institutions, major projects, companies, and the non-profit sector, reflecting a growing commitment to environmental conservation and sustainability.
Dr. Mohammed Qurban, CEO of the National Center for Wildlife, emphasized that the organization of the "HIMA" forum stems from the Kingdom's leading position in global environmental initiatives and closely aligns with NCW's mandate as the
national authority for the wildlife sector. This initiative is part of a strategic plan to enhance the national system for protected areas, setting a clear direction for the Kingdom's efforts to safeguard vital natural sites for biodiversity.
Dr. Qurban highlighted the Kingdom's ambitious 30×30 initiative, aimed at protecting 30% of Saudi Arabia's land and sea area by 2030. This initiative, announced during the Green Saudi Initiative, underscores the Kingdom's dedication to
global biodiversity goals and environmental sustainability. The roadmap includes specific targets for the protection of land and marine areas by 2025 and 2030, demonstrating a proactive approach towards conservation.
The forum serves as a platform for global leaders in protected area management to exchange knowledge and best practices, fostering collaboration and ensuring alignment with international standards.
Since its establishment in 2019, the National Center for Wildlife has been dedicated to implementing strategic plans to address the challenges facing wildlife and marine ecosystems. With a vision for flourishing and sustainable wildlife
and biodiversity, the NCW is committed to preserving environmental systems and enhancing community engagement to achieve long-term environmental sustainability and maximize societal and economic benefits.


Janbiya Demand Surges During Eid at Souq Khamis Mushait

The souq caters to every taste and budget - SPA
The souq caters to every taste and budget - SPA
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Janbiya Demand Surges During Eid at Souq Khamis Mushait

The souq caters to every taste and budget - SPA
The souq caters to every taste and budget - SPA

Eid Al-Fitr witnesses a surge in demand for janbiyas -- short, curved daggers -- as they are considered a symbol of festivity and adornment during this Eid.
Souq Khamis Mushait, a bustling marketplace in Khamis Mushait city, southern Saudi Arabia, is a haven for traditional janbiyas. Visitors from across the region come to explore this treasure trove, a captivating glimpse into the Kingdom's rich heritage, SPA reported.
The janbiya, a symbol of pride and honor, is a cherished part of Saudi culture. Worn during celebrations, it is a reminder of the country's deep traditions.
The souq caters to every taste and budget, offering intricately crafted silver janbiyas alongside rare antiques. Prices depend on craftsmanship, materials, engravings, and rarity, ranging from SAR1,000 to over SAR100,000.
Khamis Mushait's commercial roots run deep, with the city serving as a major trading center for centuries. Beyond janbiyas, the souq offers livestock, dates, and a variety of other goods.


Dining Hall with Trojan War Decorations Uncovered in Pompeii

FILE PHOTO: Tourists visit the archaeological site of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, Italy, April 27, 2021. REUTERS/Ciro De Luca/File Photo
FILE PHOTO: Tourists visit the archaeological site of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, Italy, April 27, 2021. REUTERS/Ciro De Luca/File Photo
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Dining Hall with Trojan War Decorations Uncovered in Pompeii

FILE PHOTO: Tourists visit the archaeological site of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, Italy, April 27, 2021. REUTERS/Ciro De Luca/File Photo
FILE PHOTO: Tourists visit the archaeological site of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, Italy, April 27, 2021. REUTERS/Ciro De Luca/File Photo

A black-walled dining hall with 2,000-year-old paintings inspired by the Trojan War has been discovered during excavations at the Roman city of Pompeii, authorities said on Thursday.
The size of the room - about 15 meters long and 6 meters wide - the quality of the frescoes and mosaics from the time of Emperor Augustus, and the choice of characters suggest it was used for banquets, Pompeii Archaeological Park said.
"The walls were painted black to prevent the smoke from the oil lamps being seen on the walls," Gabriel Zuchtriegel, head of the park, said, according to Reuters.
"People would meet to dine after sunset, and the flickering light of the lamps had the effect of making the images appear animated."
Pompeii and the surrounding countryside was submerged by volcanic ash when Mount Vesuvius exploded in AD 79, killing thousands of Romans who had no idea they were living beneath one of Europe's biggest volcanoes.
The site has seen a burst of archaeological activity aimed at halting years of decay and neglect, largely thanks to a 105-million-euro ($112 million) European Union-funded project.
The dominant theme of the newly discovered paintings is heroism and fate.
One fresco depicts Paris and Helen, whose love affair caused the Trojan War, according to classical accounts. Another one shows doomed prophetess Cassandra and the Greco-Roman god Apollo.
According to Greek mythology, Cassandra predicted the Trojan War after receiving the gift of foresight from Apollo, but no-one believed her. This was because of a curse Apollo put upon her for refusing to give herself to him.


French Artist in Race Against Time to Finish Monumental Piece

French artist Baptiste Chebassier poses in the middle of a part of his artwork, made from rolls of recycled paper on which names of 30,249 Olympic medallists will be written, at the Chebassier workshop in Saint-Ouen, near Paris, France, April 5, 2024. REUTERS/Noemie Olive
French artist Baptiste Chebassier poses in the middle of a part of his artwork, made from rolls of recycled paper on which names of 30,249 Olympic medallists will be written, at the Chebassier workshop in Saint-Ouen, near Paris, France, April 5, 2024. REUTERS/Noemie Olive
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French Artist in Race Against Time to Finish Monumental Piece

French artist Baptiste Chebassier poses in the middle of a part of his artwork, made from rolls of recycled paper on which names of 30,249 Olympic medallists will be written, at the Chebassier workshop in Saint-Ouen, near Paris, France, April 5, 2024. REUTERS/Noemie Olive
French artist Baptiste Chebassier poses in the middle of a part of his artwork, made from rolls of recycled paper on which names of 30,249 Olympic medallists will be written, at the Chebassier workshop in Saint-Ouen, near Paris, France, April 5, 2024. REUTERS/Noemie Olive

A couple of months ago, Baptiste Chebassier quit his consulting job to fully focus on his art project - writing the names of all the 30,249 medalists in modern Olympics' 128-year history before this year's Games start in Paris.
Using a marker pen, the 27-year-old writes the names on a rolling piece of paper that should end up being 120 meters (131 yards) long.
Chebassier said he had the idea for the project three years ago and started from the 1896 Athens Olympics, the first modern games. But progress had been slow since he could only write before or after work or on weekends, he told Reuters.
He now is into the 1980s.
"Then, I quit my job a month and half ago, and with the start of the Olympics in late July, I have to finish it whatever happens. I will finish it before the start of the Olympics, and if I can't sleep doing so, then I won't sleep."
Chebassier, who was inspired by Polish artist Roman Opalka's work on passing time, also travelled to see some former Olympic athletes and wrote their names on his piece in their presence.
In southern France, for example, he met Perrine Pelen, who a won a bronze medal in Alpine skiing at the 1980 Lake Placid Olympic and a bronze and silver at the 1984 winter Games in Sarajevo.
"I'm very honored to see my name. There is great joy in looking back, and I'm very honored to be among all these medalists," Pelen told Reuters.
"And this is a chance for me to say that we know how much of an impact an Olympic medal can have."
Chebassier said he had yet to find a place where to display his artwork.
"I would like to be able to share this photography of all the Olympic medalists during the 2024 Paris Games in a place where it could be seen by athletes, so that they can see their names and maybe their family members', as well as by attendees, because it's also their heroes' names that are written here," he said.


Cambodia's Relocation of People from UNESCO Site Raises Concerns

A view of Bayon temple at Angkor Wat temple complex in Siem Reap province, Cambodia, Tuesday, April 2, 2024. (AP Photo/Heng Sinith)
A view of Bayon temple at Angkor Wat temple complex in Siem Reap province, Cambodia, Tuesday, April 2, 2024. (AP Photo/Heng Sinith)
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Cambodia's Relocation of People from UNESCO Site Raises Concerns

A view of Bayon temple at Angkor Wat temple complex in Siem Reap province, Cambodia, Tuesday, April 2, 2024. (AP Photo/Heng Sinith)
A view of Bayon temple at Angkor Wat temple complex in Siem Reap province, Cambodia, Tuesday, April 2, 2024. (AP Photo/Heng Sinith)

It's been more than a year since Yem Srey Pin moved with her family from the village where she was born on Cambodia's Angkor UNESCO World Heritage site to Run Ta Ek, a dusty new settlement about 25 kilometers (15 miles) away.
A tattered Cambodian flag flaps gently in the scorching midday sun on her corner lot, its depiction of the Angkor Wat temple barely still visible, while her brother scoops water from a clay cistern onto a neighbor's cow that he tends during the day.
Hers is one of about 5,000 families relocated from the sprawling archaeological site, one of Southeast Asia’s top tourist draws, by Cambodian authorities in an ongoing program that Amnesty International has condemned as a “gross violation of international human rights law.” Another 5,000 families are still due to be moved.
The allegations have drawn strong expressions of concern from UNESCO and a spirited rebuttal from Cambodian authorities, who say they're doing nothing more than protecting the heritage land from illegal squatters, The Associated Press reported.
Yem Srey Pin's single-room home, its reused corrugated steel siding perforated by rust and old nail holes, is a far cry better than the makeshift tent she lived in with her husband and five children when they first arrived, which did little to protect from the monsoon rains and blew down in the winds.
And their 600-square-meter (6,500-square-foot) property is significantly bigger than the 90-square-meter (1,000-square-foot) plot they occupied illegally in the village of Khvean on the Angkor site.
But the 35-year-old is also in debt from building the new house. Her husband finds less construction work nearby and his wages are lower, and there are no wild fruits or vegetables she can forage, nor rice paddies where she can collect crabs to sell at her mother's stand.
“After more than a year here I haven't been able to save any money and I haven't earned anything,” she said, as her 12-year-old son rocked her 8-month-old daughter in a hammock in front of a fan to take the edge off midday heat nearing 40 degrees Celsius (topping 100 degrees Fahrenheit).
“Living here is just hand to mouth because the income we do have goes to pay for the rice, food and my children's school.”
The Angkor site is one of the largest archaeological sites in the world, spread across some 400 square kilometers (155 square miles) in northwestern Cambodia. It contains the ruins of Khmer Empire capitals from the 9th to 15th centuries, including the temple of Angkor Wat, featured on several Cambodian banknotes, such as the 2,000 riel note depicting rice farmers working fields around the temple, as well as the country's flag.
UNESCO calls it one of the most important archaeological sites in Southeast Asia, and it is critical to Cambodia’s tourism industry.
When it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1992, it was named a “living heritage site” whose local population observed ancestral traditions and cultural practices that have disappeared elsewhere.
Still, UNESCO at the time noted that Angkor was under “dual pressures” from some 100,000 inhabitants in 112 historic settlements who “constantly try to expand their dwelling areas,” and from encroachment from the nearby town of Siem Reap.
Cambodia's answer was a plan to entice the 10,000 families illegally squatting in the area to resettle at Run Ta Ek and another site, as well as to encourage some from the 112 historic settlements to relocate as their families grow in size.
“People got married, they had children, so the number of people were on the rise, including those coming illegally,” said Long Kosal, deputy director general and spokesperson for the Cambodian agency known as APSARA that's responsible for managing the Angkor site.
“What we did was that we provided an option.”
Cambodia began moving people to Run Ta Ek in 2022, giving those who volunteered to leave their homes in the Angkor area plots of land, a two-month supply of canned food and rice, a tarp and 30 sheets of corrugated metal to use to build a home. Benefits also included a Poor Card, essentially a state welfare program giving them around 310,000 riel (about $75) monthly for 10 years.
In a November report, Amnesty questioned how voluntary the relocations actually were, saying many people they interviewed were threatened or coerced into moving and that the relocations were more “forced evictions in disguise.”
The rights group cited a speech from former Prime Minister Hun Sen in which he said people “must either leave the Angkor site soon and receive some form of compensation or be evicted at a later time and receive nothing.”
Amnesty also noted Hun Sen's track record, saying that under his long-time rule Cambodian authorities had been responsible for several forced evictions elsewhere that it alleged “constituted gross violations of human rights.” It said Run Ta Ek — with dirt roads, insufficient drainage, poor sanitation and other issues — did not fulfil international obligations under human rights treaties to provide people adequate housing.
That has now changed: Homes with outhouses have been built, roads paved, and sewers installed. Primitive hand pumps made of blue PVC piping provide water, and electricity has been run in.
There's a school, a health center, a temple; bus routes were added, and a market area was built but is not yet operating, Long Kosal said, according to AP.
Hun Sen's successor, his son Hun Manet, traveled to Run Ta Ek in December to meet with residents and highlight infrastructure improvements in an attempt to allay the growing international concerns surrounding Cambodia's most important tourist site.
He reiterated his father's contention that if the squatters are not removed, the site risks being delisted by UNESCO — something UNESCO has never threatened.
Amnesty itself concedes life has gotten better for the residents of Run Ta Ek, but maintains there are major concerns.
Families have had to take on heavy debt to build even their basic houses, there is little work to be found, and the village — without any significant tree cover — is swelteringly hot during the day and has little shelter from winds or monsoon rains, said Montse Ferrer, the head of Amnesty’s research team investigating the Angkor Wat resettlements.
“People no longer have income,” she said in an interview in Geneva. “They had a clear source of income at the time — tourism — but also other sources of income linked to the location at Angkor. They are now at least 30 minutes away from the site and can no longer access these sources.”
Following Amnesty's scathing report, UNESCO moved up the timeline for Cambodia's submission of its own report on the state of conservation at the Angkor site, specifically asking for the allegations to be addressed.
In that report, submitted to UNESCO in March, Cambodia said it had not violated any international laws with the relocations, saying it was only moving people involved in the “illegal occupation of heritage land” and that in Run Ta Ek many were now property owners for the first time in their lives.
UNESCO said it would not comment on the situation until it has been able to analyze Cambodia's response, but referred The Associated Press to previous comments from Lazare Eloundou Assomo, director of the UNESCO World Heritage Center.
Speaking after Amnesty released its report, he stressed the agency had “always categorically rejected the use of forced evictions as a tool for management of World Heritage listed sites.”
“Since the Cambodian authorities announced their population relocation program in 2022, UNESCO has repeatedly and publicly recalled the importance of full respect for human rights,” he said.
Ferrer said Cambodia's response avoids addressing many of the issues raised by Amnesty, and that UNESCO — even though it says it has little ability to change national policies — has not yet used the significant leverage it does have.
“They could decide that the site is in danger, which they haven't. They can advise the World Heritage Committee, which is the ultimate body that can decide to take specific action against the state of Cambodia,” she said. “It can also conduct its own investigation and make public recommendations about what the state can be doing.”
Run Ta Ek resident Chhem Hay decided in June to take the opportunity to move from the village where she'd lived since she was a young teenager to the new settlement, enticed by the prospect of owning her own land, and a larger property than she'd ever had.
Her situation has improved since the austere early days living with her husband and teenage daughter in a tent on a dirt lot surviving on rice and prahok — a fermented fish paste that is an inexpensive staple for many Cambodians — paid for by charity handouts from Buddhist monks.
“I didn't dare eat anything much,” she said. “I tried to save money to buy bricks and sand.”
She was able to get a bank loan for $1,000 for the materials for a house, and now lives in a single-room brick structure built by her construction-worker husband and other family.
The income from the government Poor Card is enough for the monthly payments on the high-interest 2-year loan, which will have cost her almost double the principle when it's paid off. She has four chickens and some newly hatched chicks, though had to kill six others to feed the men building her house.
But the 37-year-old lost her work as a garbage collector in her village, and her husband has to drive in to Siem Reap for construction work, setting out at 5 a.m. to make it on time and spending about a third of his 35,000 riel ($8.70) daily income on gas for his motorbike.
She's looking forward to the day when the village market is opened, and hopes the government will establish a factory or similar business that will provide jobs.
“I don't know what will happen at the moment,” she said, standing in her doorway. “I'm just living day by day.”
For residents like Chhem Hay, Cambodia plans to offer vocational training, but does not envision further financial compensation, Long Kosal said.
“Once you have education, once you have a vocational skill, you can find a job easily,” he said. “Where you just remain there waiting for support, then you're not going to go anywhere. You're not going to make it.”
Meanwhile, villagers say many have already given up on Run Ta Ek, putting padlocks on their new homes and moving away — presumably back closer to Siem Reap and the Angkor site where it is easier to make a living.
Yem Srey Pin said even though Run Ta Ek has slowly improved since she arrived in February 2023, and her new home will be paid off fairly soon, she'd rather return to her village if it were possible.
But the village of Khvean is already slowly being reclaimed by the jungle, with grass growing through the foundations of houses, all that remains of the former homes. A hair curler, tattered blue playing cards and a trampled baseball cap lying on the ground are among the last vestiges of the lives left behind.
With almost all of the village's 400 families moving out, aside from a few who work at a neighboring military facility, Yem Srey Pin says there's nothing left for her there, even if APSARA would let her return.
“I can't live in my old village alone,” she said.


Muslims Celebrate Eid Al-Fitr with Family Reunions, New Clothes, Treats and Prayers

 A drone view shows Indonesian Muslims attend mass prayers on the road outside Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo Great Mosque during Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of holy fasting month of Ramadan, in Palembang, South Sumatra province, Indonesia, April 10, 2024, in this photo taken by Antara Foto. (Antara Foto/Nova Wahyudi/ via Reuters)
A drone view shows Indonesian Muslims attend mass prayers on the road outside Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo Great Mosque during Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of holy fasting month of Ramadan, in Palembang, South Sumatra province, Indonesia, April 10, 2024, in this photo taken by Antara Foto. (Antara Foto/Nova Wahyudi/ via Reuters)
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Muslims Celebrate Eid Al-Fitr with Family Reunions, New Clothes, Treats and Prayers

 A drone view shows Indonesian Muslims attend mass prayers on the road outside Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo Great Mosque during Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of holy fasting month of Ramadan, in Palembang, South Sumatra province, Indonesia, April 10, 2024, in this photo taken by Antara Foto. (Antara Foto/Nova Wahyudi/ via Reuters)
A drone view shows Indonesian Muslims attend mass prayers on the road outside Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo Great Mosque during Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of holy fasting month of Ramadan, in Palembang, South Sumatra province, Indonesia, April 10, 2024, in this photo taken by Antara Foto. (Antara Foto/Nova Wahyudi/ via Reuters)

The Eid al-Fitr holiday marking the end of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan was celebrated by Muslims on Wednesday with family reunions, new clothes and sweet treats.

In Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim nation, nearly three-quarters of the population were traveling for the annual homecoming known locally as “mudik” that is always welcomed with excitement.

“Mudik is not just an annual ritual or tradition for us,” said civil servant Ridho Alfian, who lives in the Jakarta area and was traveling to Lampung province at the southern tip of Sumatra island. “This is a right moment to reconnect, like recharging energy that has been drained almost a year away from home.”

Before the Eid al-Fitr holiday, markets teemed with shoppers buying clothes, shoes, cookies and sweets. People poured out of major cities to return to villages to celebrate the holiday with their loved ones. Flights were overbooked and anxious relatives weighed down with boxes of gifts formed long lines at bus and train stations for the journey.

For Arini Dewi, Eid al-Fitr is a day of victory from economic difficulties during Ramadan. “I'm happy in celebrating Eid holiday despite the surge of food prices,” said the mother of two.

Former Vice President Jusuf Kalla was among Jakarta residents offering prayers at the Al Azhar mosque yard. “Let’s celebrate Eid al-Fitr as a day of victory from many difficulties... of course there are many social problems during fasting month of Ramadan, but we can overcome it with faith and piety,” Kalla said.

On the eve of Eid al-Fitr, Jakarta residents set off firecrackers on streets that were mostly empty after city residents traveled home.

On Wednesday morning, Muslims joined communal prayers shoulder-to-shoulder on the streets and inside mosques. Jakarta’s Istiqlal Grand Mosque, the largest in Southeast Asia, was flooded with devotees offering the morning prayers.

Preachers in their sermons called on people to pray for Muslims in Gaza who were suffering after six months of war.

“This is the time for Muslims and non-Muslims to show humanitarian solidarity, because the conflict in Gaza is not a religious war, but a humanitarian problem," said Jimly Asshiddiqie who chairs the advisory board of the Indonesian Mosque Council.

In Pakistan, authorities have deployed more than 100,000 police and paramilitary forces to keep security at mosques and marketplaces. People were shopping as usual Tuesday, with women buying bangles, jewelry and clothes for themselves and their children.


Night Tours Spotlight Casablanca Architectural Heritage 

A picture shows a view of a building with distinguished architecture in the city of Casablanca on March 29, 2024. (AFP)
A picture shows a view of a building with distinguished architecture in the city of Casablanca on March 29, 2024. (AFP)
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Night Tours Spotlight Casablanca Architectural Heritage 

A picture shows a view of a building with distinguished architecture in the city of Casablanca on March 29, 2024. (AFP)
A picture shows a view of a building with distinguished architecture in the city of Casablanca on March 29, 2024. (AFP)

For architecture fans, Casablanca offers a visual feast of Moorish tiles, ancient minarets and French colonial facades with Art Deco touches, but much still faces dereliction or is falling apart.

To highlight the rich heritage of the Moroccan economic capital and encourage its preservation, guided walking tours have taken thousands of people on urban explorations on Ramadan evenings.

Normally, "the pace of life in Casablanca is so hectic that we don't take the time to appreciate" the landmarks, said Mehdi Ksikes, 51, a company manager joining one of the "Heritage Nights" tours.

Ksikes said on a tour during the Muslim holy month of fasting that he was seeing the city of his birth with new eyes.

"I live here, but that doesn't stop me from discovering things about my city."

The visitors gazed intently at a facade in central Casablanca as Leila, a volunteer guide with heritage association Casamemoire, pointed out details most of them had missed.

Casablanca's architectural heritage is not limited to its 18th-century walled city, but also includes structures from its urban expansion during the French colonial period from 1912 to 1956.

From the early 20th century, European architects "worked to adapt progressive urban visions to Moroccan particularities", said architect Karim Rouissi, who heads Casamemoire.

They brought the city to "the avant-garde of exploring 20th-century architectural and urban theories".

Architects drew inspiration from different styles, such as "colonial architecture in Algeria and Tunisia" and "new Moroccan architecture", a fusion of classic European architecture and elements of Moroccan craftsmanship, Rouissi said.

Casamemoire was founded in 1995 with the aim of promoting the city's "unique" heritage and preserving it, after the demolition of several historic buildings.

'A different perspective'

Many of Casablanca's historical buildings, such as the Wilaya (province) hall, the court of first instance, the central bank building, and others, are in the old administrative district in the city center.

But traffic and noise there "makes us not usually think about wandering around here", said Bouthaina, a tour participant snapping pictures inside a building open to visitors for the night tours.

"I can now see the city from a different perspective with influences of European architecture mixing with Moroccan techniques," said Bouthaina, who settled in Casablanca because of her work.

The Wilaya hall is an example of this blend, inspired by designs from Siena municipal palace in Italy, with balconies overlooking the exterior -- an uncommon feature in traditional Moroccan architecture.

Inside the building, a small garden sits in the middle of a spacious patio, allowing for natural ventilation, its columns and floors coated with hand-shaped glazed Zellige tiles.

At the central bank building, tour guide Leila pointed to polished stones clinging to the outside windows of the upper floor.

She noted the influence of the minarets of the Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakesh and its twin, the Giralda Mosque in Seville which was built during the 12th century Almohad era, and later converted to a cathedral.

The bank building also bears Art Deco features, with a beehive-like glass roof inside and a wide gate resembling the door of a safe.

Keeping 'buildings alive'

While some of Casablanca's architectural gems are well-preserved, others have fallen into disrepair or have been demolished, sparking public outrage.

A total of 483 buildings in the city have been listed as national heritage, and 100 others are expected to be added soon, according to culture ministry official Hassan Zohal.

The owners of national heritage buildings are required to preserve the original architecture of the facades when carrying out renovations or other work.

Wearing a yellow T-shirt with the slogan "Volunteer for my heritage" on the back, Yacine Benzriouil, a Casamemoire volunteer, said that despite official efforts, some buildings remain abandoned or closed.

"The fight today is to show the value of this heritage," said Benzriouil.

"We need to think about how to keep these buildings alive before they are doomed to disappear."

Benzriouil is one of almost 200 volunteer guides leading the "heritage nights".

Near the end of the visit in the administrative district, participants joined Benzriouil's group in Mohammed VI Boulevard, where buildings blend Moorish tilework and arches with Art Nouveau.

Nature or mythological figures are showcased on the buildings' ornate facades.

During the walk, Benzriouil pointed to a statue of the head of Bacchus, the Roman god of wine, sitting atop a building facing one of Casablanca's historic bars.

Further down the boulevard, the Lincoln Hotel is undergoing reconstruction, restoring its original 1917 facade after decades of dereliction.

"The conservation battle is half won," he said.


Indonesia’s Annual Exodus Starts Ahead of Eid Al-Fitr Festivities

A drone view shows a traffic jam towards the port of Merak, as Indonesian Muslims travel to their hometowns to celebrate Eid al-Fitr which marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, known locally as "mudik", in Cilegon, Banten province, Indonesia, April 7, 2024. (Reuters)
A drone view shows a traffic jam towards the port of Merak, as Indonesian Muslims travel to their hometowns to celebrate Eid al-Fitr which marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, known locally as "mudik", in Cilegon, Banten province, Indonesia, April 7, 2024. (Reuters)
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Indonesia’s Annual Exodus Starts Ahead of Eid Al-Fitr Festivities

A drone view shows a traffic jam towards the port of Merak, as Indonesian Muslims travel to their hometowns to celebrate Eid al-Fitr which marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, known locally as "mudik", in Cilegon, Banten province, Indonesia, April 7, 2024. (Reuters)
A drone view shows a traffic jam towards the port of Merak, as Indonesian Muslims travel to their hometowns to celebrate Eid al-Fitr which marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, known locally as "mudik", in Cilegon, Banten province, Indonesia, April 7, 2024. (Reuters)

Aditya Nugraha, a 21-year-old Indonesian, was travelling from the capital city of Jakarta to his hometown of Palembang on Sumatra island, over 500 km (310 miles) away, to celebrate the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Fitr this week.

The festival, also called Lebaran in Indonesia, marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan. It falls on Wednesday this year and the entire week will be celebrated by more than 220 million people in Indonesia, which has one of the world's largest Muslim populations.

Aditya was one of the many millions travelling to his hometown in a mass exodus known locally as "mudik" and usually marked by hours of traffic jams, especially on the main island of Java.

"We departed from home last night around 9, and now it's been 13 hours and we are still stuck in this very long traffic. Hopefully, there will be a solution to this soon," Aditya told Reuters on Monday, waiting to enter the port in the town of Merak for a ferry to cross from Java to Sumatra.

Drone footage on Monday showed thousands of vehicles queuing to enter the ferries, while many more were on the road heading to the port, stretching far outside Merak.

People living in Jakarta, a city of 11 million people, started leaving the capital over the weekend, according to the Transport Ministry.

Around 193 million people were expected to travel during the festivities this year, according to a survey by the ministry, around 56% higher compared to the number of travelers during the Eid holidays last year.