Rouhani Calls for Referendum on Economy, Foreign, Domestic Policies

Former Iranian President Hasan Rouhani with former Foreign Minister Javad Zarif (Hasan Rouhani website)
Former Iranian President Hasan Rouhani with former Foreign Minister Javad Zarif (Hasan Rouhani website)
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Rouhani Calls for Referendum on Economy, Foreign, Domestic Policies

Former Iranian President Hasan Rouhani with former Foreign Minister Javad Zarif (Hasan Rouhani website)
Former Iranian President Hasan Rouhani with former Foreign Minister Javad Zarif (Hasan Rouhani website)

Former Iranian President Hasan Rouhani on Thursday called for free elections and a general referendum on foreign, domestic, and economic policies 332 days before the scheduled legislative elections.

During his meeting with the ministers and senior officials of his former cabinet, Rouhani said that this year would be a test for the regime to stage free and fair elections.

"The eyes of the world are on the elections so that they see, and we see, whether the elections are held in a healthy, competitive, and free manner or not," the former president said.

Rouhani voiced his successor Ebrahim Raisi in focusing on the recommendations of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, who called for curbing inflation and boosting growth.

Rouhani said that the past year witnessed bitter events, resulting in most people, including the protesters, demanding a better life.

"The country needs reform, change, and transformation," he added, calling for tangible transformation that meets the popular demands.

Rouhani reiterated that the answer to people's demands in foreign and domestic policies and the economy could be found by holding referendums as envisaged by Article 59 of the constitution.
He explained that a single public referendum could record the people's responses to three questions on the foreign and domestic policies and the economy, stressing that this is a big step for transformation and would lead to optimism for a better future.

On Tuesday, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei said that the upcoming elections are critical and "can be a manifestation of national power."

During his reception of several officials and authority figures, Khamenei warned that if the elections were "not held properly, it shows the weakness of the country, nation, and officials, which makes us weaker and more vulnerable to enemy attacks and pressures."

According to the Supreme Leader, the relevant officials should determine the "participation, security, health and competition of elections" strategy to hold fair elections.

Khamenei first expressed the calls for a transformative approach on March 21 on Nowruz in Mashhad.

Referring to the recent protests, Khamenei said the transformation and transition the enemies want is the opposite of Iran's beliefs.

He said that the primary goal of the enemies behind using concepts such as “structural transformation,” “change,” and “revolution” was to change the identity of Iran, adding that the enemy's goal was to eliminate the strengths of the nation and government.

Meanwhile, Guardian Council spokesman Hadi Tahan Nazif pledged that the council began preparing for the upcoming February elections and would use all its powers to conduct them properly in line with its legal duties.

Iran will also witness the elections of the Assembly of Experts for Leadership, which includes 88 influential clerics, and one of its most significant tasks is to name the successor to the current Supreme Leader.

The Assembly holds elections every eight years, and the past elections sparked controversy after Hassan Khomeini, the grandson of the Iranian Supreme Leader, was removed from the list of candidates.

Similarly, former reformist President Mohammad Khatami called for reforms and returning to the spirit of the Iranian constitution.

In his statement marking the 43rd anniversary of the Iranian revolution last February, Khatami said the way and approach followed made it impossible to meet the demands for reforms, reaching a dead end.

Khatami expressed his regret that the government did not show any sign of reform, saying that structural or behavioral reform would be less costly and more fruitful to get out of the crises.

Khatami responded to his ally, the reformist leader Mir-Hossein Mousavi, who called for drafting a new constitution and submitting it to a popular referendum in "free and fair" elections to change the regime's structure.

Mousavi described the structure and unsustainable basic system as a "major crisis" in a country facing many crises.

Mousavi, who has been under house arrest since February 2011, said that his campaign slogan for the 2009 presidential elections to implement the current constitution fully is no longer effective.



Putin Signs Deals With Vietnam in Bid to Shore Up Ties in Asia

Russia's President Vladimir Putin, who soon begins a visit to North Korea, last traveled to the isolated country in 2000. NATALIA KOLESNIKOVA / AFP
Russia's President Vladimir Putin, who soon begins a visit to North Korea, last traveled to the isolated country in 2000. NATALIA KOLESNIKOVA / AFP
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Putin Signs Deals With Vietnam in Bid to Shore Up Ties in Asia

Russia's President Vladimir Putin, who soon begins a visit to North Korea, last traveled to the isolated country in 2000. NATALIA KOLESNIKOVA / AFP
Russia's President Vladimir Putin, who soon begins a visit to North Korea, last traveled to the isolated country in 2000. NATALIA KOLESNIKOVA / AFP

Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a series of deals with his Vietnamese counterpart To Lam on Thursday, during a state visit that comes as Moscow is seeking to bolster ties in Asia to offset growing international isolation over its military actions in Ukraine.
The two signed agreements to further cooperation on education, science and technology, oil and gas exploration and health. They also agreed to work on a roadmap for a nuclear science and technology center in Vietnam, The Associated Press said.
Following the talks, Putin said that the two countries share an interest in “developing a reliable security architecture” in the Asia-Pacific Region based on not using force and peacefully settling disputes with no room for “closed military-political blocs.”
This was echoed by Vietnam's new President To Lam, who said they seek to further “further cooperate in defense and security to cope with non-traditional security challenges” while implementing energy projects and expanding investments. He also congratulated Putin on his re-election and praised Russia's “domestic political stability.”
The agreements between Russia and Vietnam were not as substantial as an agreement Putin signed with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un the previous day, pledging mutual aid in the event of invasion said Nigel Gould-Davies, a senior fellow for Russia and Eurasia with the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, and a former British ambassador to Belarus.
Putin arrived in Hanoi early Thursday morning from North Korea, where he and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un signed an agreement that pledges mutual aid in the event of war. The strategic pact that could mark the strongest connection between Moscow and Pyongyang since the end of the Cold War comes as both face escalating standoffs with the West.
Putin also met Vietnam’s most powerful politician, Communist Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong, as well as Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh, according to the official Vietnam News Agency. He is also scheduled to meet parliamentary chief Tran Thanh Man.
Putin drove to Vietnam’s Presidential Palace on Thursday afternoon, where he was greeted by school children waving Russian and Vietnamese flags. There, he shook hands with and embraced Lam before a bilateral meeting and a joint briefing to the media.
Russia is keen to maintain “close and effective cooperation” in energy, industry, technology, education, security and trade, Russian Ambassador to Vietnam Gennady S. Bezdetko said on Wednesday, according to Vietnamese official media.
The trip has resulted in a sharp rebuke from the US Embassy in the country.
Much has changed since Putin's last visit to Vietnam in 2017. Russia now faces a raft of US-led sanctions for its invasion of Ukraine. In 2023, the International Criminal Court in Hague issued an arrest warrant for Putin for war crimes. The Kremlin rejected it as “null and void,” stressing that Moscow doesn’t recognize the court's jurisdiction.
Putin's recent visits to China and now North Korea and Vietnam are attempts to “break the international isolation,” said Nguyen Khac Giang, an analyst at Singapore’s ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.
The US and its allies have expressed growing concerns over a possible arms arrangement in which Pyongyang provides Moscow with badly needed munitions for its use in Ukraine, in exchange for economic assistance and technology transfers that could enhance the threat posed by Kim’s nuclear weapons and missile program.
Both countries deny accusations of weapons transfers, which would violate multiple UN Security Council sanctions that Russia previously endorsed.
Meanwhile, Russia is important to Vietnam for two reasons, Giang said: It is the biggest supplier of military equipment to the Southeast Asian nation, and Russian oil exploration technologies help maintain its sovereignty claims in the contested South China Sea.
“Russia is signaling that it is not isolated in Asia despite the Ukraine war, and Vietnam is reinforcing a key traditional relationship even as it also diversifies ties with newer partners,” said Prashanth Parameswaran, a fellow with the Wilson Center’s Asia Program.
It is unlikely that Vietnam will supplying significant quantities of weapons to Russia, because that would risk progress the country has made with NATO members on military equipment, particularly the US, which has donated naval patrol vessels and is in talks to supply aircraft, said Ridzwan Rahmat, a Singapore-based analyst with the defense intelligence company Janes.
“There is progress that you wouldn’t have imagined just 10 years ago,” he said. “So I would imagine Vietnam wouldn’t want to take a risk, inviting the wrath of Western countries by supplying the Russians.”
Hanoi and Moscow have had diplomatic relations since 1950, and this year marks 30 years of a treaty establishing “friendly relations” between Vietnam and Russia.
Evidence of this long relationship and its influence can be seen in Vietnamese cities like the capital, where the many Soviet-style apartment blocks are now dwarfed by skyscrapers and a statue of Vladimir Lenin, the founder of the Soviet Union, stands in a park where kids skateboard every evening. Many of the Communist Party's top leadership in Vietnam studied in Soviet universities, including party chief Trong.
In an article written for Nhan Dan, the official newspaper of Vietnam’s Communist Party, Putin vowed to deepen the ties between Moscow and Hanoi and hailed Vietnam as a “strong supporter of a fair world order based on international law, on the principles of equality of all states and non-interference in their domestic affairs.”
He also thanked “Vietnamese friends for their balanced position on the Ukrainian crisis,” in the article released by the Kremlin.
Given Putin's international isolation, Vietnam is doing the Russian leader a “huge favor and may expect favors in return,” wrote Andrew Goledzinowski, the Australian ambassador to Vietnam, on social media platform X. He said that it would have been hard for Vietnam to decline the visit since Putin was already in Asia and Vietnam has historical ties with the former Soviet Republic, but said that it was unlikely that the two would be strategic partners again. “Vietnam will always act in Vietnam’s interests and not anyone else’s,” he wrote.
Vietnam's pragmatic policy of “bamboo diplomacy” — a phrase coined by Trong referring to the plant's flexibility, bending but not breaking in the shifting headwinds of global geopolitics — is being increasingly tested.
A manufacturing powerhouse and an increasingly important player in global supply chains, Vietnam played host to both U.S. President Joe Biden and the leader of rival China, Xi Jinping, in 2023.
The visit was important for Hanoi on a diplomatic level, said Gould-Davies, the former ambassador.
“Perhaps for Vietnam it’s a matter of just showing that it’s able to maintain this very agile balance of its bamboo diplomacy,” he said. “Already in the course of a year they’ve hosted visits by the heads of state of the three most powerful countries in the world, which is pretty impressive."
Similarly, for Russia the visit seems to have been more about optics than anything else, he said, as Moscow seeks to engage and influence other countries, particularly in the so-called Global South.