Emir of Qatar Receives Saudi Foreign Minister

Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani meets with Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. (SPA)
Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani meets with Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. (SPA)
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Emir of Qatar Receives Saudi Foreign Minister

Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani meets with Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. (SPA)
Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani meets with Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. (SPA)

Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani met on Tuesday with Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah, who is on an official visit to Qatar.

The meeting, held at the Amiri Diwan, touched on bilateral relations and ways of promoting and enhancing them, as well as on regional and international issues of common concern, reported the Saudi Press Agency.

Prince Faisal conveyed the greetings of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz, Crown Prince and Prime Minister, to Sheikh Tamim.

Saudi Ambassador to Qatar Prince Mansour bin Khalid bin Farhan and Director General of the foreign minister’s office Abdulrahman Al-Daoud attended the meeting.

Prince Faisal later met with his Qatari counterpart and Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani.

The meeting at the Amiri Diwan tackled bilateral relations and ways of promoting and bolstering them. They also discussed regional and international issues of common interest.



Saudi Ambassador to Canada Meets with Arab Counterparts

Saudi Arabia’s Embassy in Ottawa, Canada can be seen. (File/AP)
Saudi Arabia’s Embassy in Ottawa, Canada can be seen. (File/AP)
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Saudi Ambassador to Canada Meets with Arab Counterparts

Saudi Arabia’s Embassy in Ottawa, Canada can be seen. (File/AP)
Saudi Arabia’s Embassy in Ottawa, Canada can be seen. (File/AP)

Saudi Ambassador to Canada Amal bint Yahya Al-Muallami has recently attended a meeting of the Council of Arab Ambassadors to Canada, SPA said on Friday.
The meeting focused on current developments in the Arab countries, particularly the ongoing Israeli attacks on the Gaza Strip and the city of Rafah.
The participants have also discussed ways to strengthen and develop cooperation between the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Canada.


MWL Secretary General Meets with US Congress Delegation, Pakistani Minister of Trade

MWL Secretary General Meets with US Congress Delegation, Pakistani Minister of Trade
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MWL Secretary General Meets with US Congress Delegation, Pakistani Minister of Trade

MWL Secretary General Meets with US Congress Delegation, Pakistani Minister of Trade

Secretary-General of Muslim World League (MWL) and Chairman of the Association of Muslim Scholars Sheikh Dr. Mohammed bin Abdulkarim Al-Isa received in Riyadh on Friday a delegation from the US Congress headed by Andrea Carson.

The officials reviewed issues related to strengthening friendship and cooperation among nations and peoples around the world amid unrest and the clash of civilizations.

The meeting praised the MWL conference that was held at the United Nations headquarters in New York that focused on building bridges between East and West and called for a more understanding and peaceful world.

The MWL reiterated its position on the Gaza war, denouncing the horrific killing of women and children in flagrant violation of international humanitarian law.

Also on Friday, Dr. Al-Isa received Pakistan’s Minister of Trade, Industry and Production and Acting Minister of Interior Dr. Jawhar Ijaz and Undersecretary of the Ministry of Interior Dr. Aftab Akbar Durrani.

The officials discussed a number of issues of common interest at the Islamic and international levels and prospects for bilateral cooperation.


Saudi Leadership Congratulates Sultan of Brunei, Emperor of Japan on Respective National Days

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud and Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Crown Prince and Prime Minister. (SPA)
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud and Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Crown Prince and Prime Minister. (SPA)
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Saudi Leadership Congratulates Sultan of Brunei, Emperor of Japan on Respective National Days

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud and Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Crown Prince and Prime Minister. (SPA)
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud and Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Crown Prince and Prime Minister. (SPA)

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud sent on Friday a cable of congratulations to Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei on the anniversary of his country's National Day.

He wished the Sultan constant good health and happiness and the government and people of Brunei steady progress and prosperity.

Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Crown Prince and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, sent the ruler of Brunei a similar cable.

King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammed also sent separate cables of congratulations to Japan's Emperor Naruhito on the anniversary of his country's National Day.

They wished him constant good health and happiness and the government and people of Japan steady progress and prosperity.


King Salman: Saudi Founding Day Celebrates History of Stability, Harmony 

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz. (SPA)
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz. (SPA)
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King Salman: Saudi Founding Day Celebrates History of Stability, Harmony 

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz. (SPA)
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz. (SPA)

Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz stressed on Thursday that Saudi Arabia's Founding Day celebrates the state’s history of stability and the harmony between its leadership and people.

In a post on the X platform, he thanked God almighty for the “unity of this blessed nation and its people.”

He highlighted its 300 years of stability and history that are being commemorated on the occasion.

Saudi Arabia celebrates Founding Day every year on February 22.


Saudi FM Discusses Gaza Situation with French, Turkish Counterparts

The Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with his Turkish counterpart. SPA
The Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with his Turkish counterpart. SPA
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Saudi FM Discusses Gaza Situation with French, Turkish Counterparts

The Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with his Turkish counterpart. SPA
The Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with his Turkish counterpart. SPA

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah met with French Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Stéphane Séjourné on Thursday.
The meeting took place on the sidelines of the G20 foreign ministers' meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The ministers explored ways to enhance bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and France.
They also discussed regional and international issues of mutual concern, with a particular focus on the developments in the Gaza Strip and its surroundings.

Prince Faisal held a separate meeting with Turkish Foreign Minister Hakan Fidan.

The ministers reviewed bilateral relations and means to enhance them in various fields, as well as the latest regional and international developments, particularly in Gaza.


Kuwait to Hold Elections Without the Commission

A Kuwaiti woman casts her vote in previous elections for the National Assembly (KUNA)
A Kuwaiti woman casts her vote in previous elections for the National Assembly (KUNA)
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Kuwait to Hold Elections Without the Commission

A Kuwaiti woman casts her vote in previous elections for the National Assembly (KUNA)
A Kuwaiti woman casts her vote in previous elections for the National Assembly (KUNA)

Kuwait issued a decree on Wednesday temporarily suspending the National Assembly’s election law until Oct. 1.

The government has not set a date for the elections, but they are expected to be held on April 13, immediately after the Eid al-Fitr holiday.

The decree published in the Official Gazette (Kuwait al-Youm) regarding the 2024 National Assembly elections stipulated that a voter who has been convicted by final judgment of a felony, a crime against honor or trust, or a crime of insulting the divine entity, the prophets, or the Emir, shall be prohibited from voting unless rehabilitated.

The memorandum explained that the decree is aligned with the procedural rules of previous National Assembly elections and maintains all the guarantees and gains approved by the temporarily suspended law, including determining the electoral domicile according to the official data specified in the national ID to avoid tampering with the electoral restrictions.

Regarding the suspension of the Elections Commission Law, the memorandum explained that it was impossible to appoint judges to lead the commission within a short time as required by the suspended law.

Judges who join the commission will be required to resign from their work in the judiciary and lose the benefits of their position under the law and the letter sent by the head of the Court of Cassation and the President of the Supreme Council of Judges to the Minister of Justice.

Kuwaiti constitutional expert Mohammed al-Faili explained that the decree addresses the impossibility of implementing the electoral law because judges refuse to be appointed to the administrative body to monitor the electoral process.

Faili further noted that given that the law could not be implemented, and according to the Constitution, elections must be held within two months, and the decree was necessary legislation in the absence of parliament, which could be inferred as a law.

He noted that after suspending the mechanism stipulated for establishing the Elections Commission, the remaining provisions were restored, and the former election management mechanism was used, where the Ministry of Interior is responsible for updating voter lists with an urgent mechanism.

Faili clarified that this decree adopted the text of the postponed Commission law but kept its old provisions in effect, and in this regard, whoever obtained rehabilitation will benefit from it.


Saudi State History: Three Stages of Development, Building on Ancestral Foundations

Individuals from the Saudi society in their different attire (Asharq Al-Awsat)
Individuals from the Saudi society in their different attire (Asharq Al-Awsat)
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Saudi State History: Three Stages of Development, Building on Ancestral Foundations

Individuals from the Saudi society in their different attire (Asharq Al-Awsat)
Individuals from the Saudi society in their different attire (Asharq Al-Awsat)

Throughout the history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, spanning over 300 years, there are tales of founding, unification, and development, weaving a connected narrative. This history holds bright moments and inspiring stories for those who explore it.

It reveals political shifts, social changes, and intellectual awakenings, reflecting the journey of a nation and the evolution of a state.

This nation, once overlooked, rose from adversity to reclaim its place. The Saudi state restored the Arabian Peninsula’s significance and revived its Arab heritage.

The Kingdom’s story features highs and lows, with its significance experiencing rare fluctuations thrice throughout history.

Modern historians label these phases as the “first, second, and third” epochs, though these terms aren't official.

The division started relatively recently, during King Faisal’s reign, with legal scholar and historian Dr. Munir Al-Ajlani being an early adopter. Even during King Abdulaziz’s era, historians like Amin Al-Rihani and Fouad Hamza referred to these periods as “first” and “second” eras.

But what about the years when the state was weak or absent?

These years are the reason behind this logical division historically, although they could be perceived as times that connected different phases.

Before that, it’s important to understand “the historical legacy established by the first state,” which the second and third eras built upon.

This underscores the importance of recalling the history of the Saudi state in all its stages and changes, reminding observers of its rich legacy and deep roots on its founding day, while also shedding light on lesser-known aspects of the Kingdom’s history.

Principles of the First Era of the Saudi State

According to writer and political researcher Jabran Shamia, the first era of the Saudi state embodied key principles.

These include an emphasis on knowledge and understanding in religious and worldly matters, judicial reform and ensuring security, breaking traditions, promoting the right to interpret texts, adhering to constitutional principles in decision-making and governance, educational and social reform, and striving for unity and expanding connections globally.

Shamia highlights several points about the “first Saudi state”:

Firstly, it was an Arab Islamic state, serving as a strong Arab defense against external powers. Secondly, it emerged in complex global, Arab, and local conditions, resisting repression and defamation. Thirdly, it presented a new image of governance in the Arabian Peninsula, leaving a lasting impact on intellectual and social developments in the region and beyond.

This viewpoint is echoed by Sir Harford Jones Bridges, who emphasized the free nature of the Saudi state’s system and its focus on justice, security, and discipline.

Similarly, historian Dr. Abdul Karim Al-Ghraibeh credits the Al Sauds with transitioning the Arabian Peninsula towards civilization, establishing security, order, and unity in previously unsettled lands.

This introduction is vital to grasp why the Saudi state has endured despite attempts to dismantle it, destroy its capital, erase its heritage, and persecute its people.

What’s remarkable is that observers face a rare case in history regarding the continuity of the Saudi state, both in its presence and absence.

Since Imam Muhammad bin Saud's leadership in Diriyah 297 years ago, the total years of weakness or absence amount to no more than 17 years at most, representing less than 6% of its entire existence.

Even during those times, preparations were underway to reclaim governance and symbolize the state’s presence through its legitimate rulers, regardless of their location.

Historian Abdulrahman Al-Ruwished highlights: “Even in their absence, the Al Sauds proudly carried the Saudi flag, never abandoning it."

Numerous stories, including one from a British navy captain, attest to this, describing the Saudi flag near Kuwait in 1901 as “green in color with the Arabic inscription: There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

Years of Weakness

During times of weakness, the Al Saud family’s absence didn’t mean they were out of the picture. They kept working to regain control. Historians like Dr. Abdel Fattah Abu Alia suggest that the Saudi era is more than just about the state’s existence.

Why did the state return after being absent? According to Dr. Abu Alia, even though the first Saudi state collapsed, its ideas lived on, and people in Najd continued to support the Saudi family.

Despite the state’s absence, people still sent their support to the legitimate ruler.

French historian Felix Mengin predicted the return of rulers like Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud and Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman bin Faisal bin Turki. He believed they would tap into the warlike spirit to reclaim their kingdom, and his predictions transpired over time.

King Abdulaziz’s reign was different. He didn’t just rely on his family’s legacy but also learned from history and modernized governance.

He built a strong state while staying true to his roots. His approach to governance set a unique precedent, focusing on justice, security, and religion, which were valued in Najd.

This legacy continues today, as King Abdulaziz’s descendants carry on his principles, adapting to modern challenges while preserving their heritage.

Saudi Arabia's Evolving Traditions

The descendants of the Kingdom's founder, King Abdulaziz, have upheld his legacy, each monarch surpassing the last in fulfilling their duties.

This sets Saudi Arabia apart, showcasing its rich yet adaptable nature. Over centuries, the kingdom has evolved through its royal customs, blending tradition with innovation.

Under King Salman bin Abdulaziz and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s leadership, Saudi Arabia is undergoing a significant revival. The ongoing social changes are unprecedented.

Trying to isolate these achievements from their historical context ignores their ties to three centuries of royal heritage and a six-century history celebrated on the founding day.

Some historians mistakenly divide the state’s history into three eras. However, it’s a continuous story of a single state enduring different roles and epochs while staying true to its founding principles, despite the challenges it has faced.


Shuqir to Asharq Al-Awsat: Heritage of First Saudi State Was Erased, Marginalized

A group of people in an old Saudi market (Asharq Al-Awsat)
A group of people in an old Saudi market (Asharq Al-Awsat)
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Shuqir to Asharq Al-Awsat: Heritage of First Saudi State Was Erased, Marginalized

A group of people in an old Saudi market (Asharq Al-Awsat)
A group of people in an old Saudi market (Asharq Al-Awsat)

The first Saudi state, upon its establishment, sought to support social harmony by boosting security and imposing strict penalties against crime, which significantly impacted creating a healthy environment, said a Saudi researcher and expert in sociology and anthropology, Abdulrahman al-Shuqir.

In an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsat, Shuqir pointed out that the local Saudi heritage is a gateway to the world.

He considered research into the social aspects and practice of people's daily lives during the first Saudi state to be one of the most important studies in contemporary sociology.

After the first Saudi state emerged, it sought to support the maintenance of social harmony by strengthening security and imposing strict penalties against illegal actions.

Asharq Al-Awsat asked the expert whether security is one of the components of community identity and its relationship with heritage, which Shuqir described as an "organic relationship."

He recalled that civilization is a social system that helps man increase his cultural production, noting that after establishing the first Saudi state, security emerged as one of the most important standards.

He cited the era of Imam Abdul Aziz bin Mohammad as an example of security, indicating that state enemies and opponents attested to that.

- A misleading history that obscured the achievement

Shuqir said there is cultural identity wherever there is an interactive and active society, which leads to the emergence of heritage, customs, and values.

He explained that the local Saudi heritage passed through three primary stages.

Firstly, most of the Saudi material and intangible heritage was established in the "Medieval Society" between 600 and 1139 AH and began before the establishment of the Saudi state.

Shuqir also noted that the vast heritage was erased and marginalized, leading many historians to describe society as lacking achievement.

Saudi historians and researchers have been influenced by the misleading history established for them for three centuries, said Shuqir.

He indicated that this motivated the documentation of the "Popular Memory" project by exploring the daily practices of ordinary people in Saudi society.

According to the expert, the kingdom's history moved along two different paths during the three centuries, including viewing society from religious and daily life perspectives.

He explained that the daily life perspective is the spirit of the Saudi state, evidenced by the imams of the state, which approved religious schools of thought, appointed Shiite judges in respective positions, and provided security for the people to practice their social and economic activities without change.

History has been neglected for a long time, even though it belongs to the nature of the state and confirms its openness and policies that contribute to keeping it strong, said Shuqir.

Regarding the sources of local identity, Shuqir explained that the essence of identity, culture, arts, and the tangible and intangible heritage that regulates human behavior today lies in medieval society. He recalled clear cognitive distinctions with the historical eras that came after and before, including the long period that separated the Islamic era from the first Saudi state.

Therefore, when addressing some aspects of contemporary life, such as marriage customs, war dance, arts, games, and proverbs, historians refer to the achievements of society in the Middle Ages, which do not belong to the Islamic ages that preceded it, nor does it belong to the Salafist heritage.

He further explained that the Saudi state was built on and contained the existing heritage by supporting its central culture and subcultures of various regions and tribes.

- A civilizational achievement for the first state

Shuqir believes that the sources of cultural identity are multiple and stem from the collective memory accumulated over generations, and its features began with the Thamudic era, approximately 3,000 years ago.

The Arab tribes of pre-Islamic times enacted some customs and values, and Islam came and added the religious spirit, rejecting some values and promoting others.

- "Najd: the complete story"

In studying the Middle Ages, Shuqir stated there was a great conviction that the future can be understood by considering history and identifying reality.

He spent eight years studying the Najdi society for hundreds of years and initially called it "Najd... the complete story," indicating that he reviewed history utilizing new research approaches and methods and found new theories at the level of the Arab world.

One of the most prominent conclusions is that society is the origin and that the state gains its stability by caring for society and enhancing its values and subcultures, said Shuqir, adding that the Saudi state achieved that.

The fall of the Abbasid state heralded the rise of an unprecedented Najdi civilization.

He recalled that after the second Abbasid state weakened, Najd and many regions in the Arab Peninsula were neglected, adding that after the collapse of Islamic civilization, the area became isolated and did not benefit from the renaissance.

After its marginalization, Najd experienced a massive increase in the population of individuals looking for safety away from conflict areas, he said, leading to the establishment of its renaissance after the Islamic world became dispersed.

At the beginning of the 7th century AH, the Najd region began to experience an unprecedented boom and became a "huge factory" for establishing agricultural towns and villages and restoring the road network.

Therefore, according to Shuqir, the downfall of the Abbasid state constituted the rebirth of the Arab and Islamic nations, leaving a void that the Mamluks, then the Ottomans, tried to fill.

However, according to the expert, the Saudi state was more likely to be accepted by the Islamic world due to the strength of Arabism, the proximity to the Two Holy Mosques, and the Saudi political awareness of this vacuum.

He indicated that the new vision is one of the basic ideas contradicting the prevailing views on Najdi history by transforming the declining renaissance index into a rising index regarding social, economic, political, and religious urbanization.

He further explained that it negated the prevalent critique, which asserts the difference between the results based on texts and those based on evidence, analysis, and reliable research methods.

- Diriyah brings together the identity of Saudi society

He said that attention to identity and heritage issues carries an added and sustainable value that flows into an integrated project.

People with living historical and cultural resources can withstand crises and derive moral strength from their history.

The Saudi regions enjoy a large cultural reserve and heritage encompassing all their historical eras. It possesses a linguistic product and a great literary heritage in pre-Islamic times and a contribution to the Islamic conquests at the beginning of Islam, according to Shuqir.

Shuqir believes Diriyah still possesses a radiant spirit that brings together the identity of Saudi society, as it was during the first Saudi state.

He believes that Diriyah can become once again the state's capital, as it was before, and be re-integrated according to a broader historical and cultural plan for its historical capitals.

Shuqir enjoys valuable knowledge and experiences, resulting in dozens of research and studies on sociology, history, and anthropology. He utilized his experiences and employed them in studying Saudi society.

He recalled that his career and interest in the historical development of society began in his early years, indicating that he used to travel a lot between various Saudi regions.

During travels, he met with several storytellers and notables and read about each region's history, heritage, and literature.

Shuqir has many publications about the society, but what caught his attention recently was the emergence of generations of readers immersed in the world's literary heritage, passionately following US, European, and Russian books, including ones that won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

He said that Saudi local heritage and popular literature are the gateway to the world, adding that many researchers had previously emphasized that globalism begins from localism.

Shuqir began writing about the customs of the society, which was widely accepted by Saudi youth, and some of them returned to reading Saudi novels, amazed at the creativity in their culture that parallels world literature.


Saudi FM: G20 Bears Responsibility to Take Decisive Action to End Gaza Catastrophe

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. SPA
Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. SPA
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Saudi FM: G20 Bears Responsibility to Take Decisive Action to End Gaza Catastrophe

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. SPA
Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah. SPA

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah participated in the first session of the G20 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Rio de Janeiro.

The minister indicated that the G20 countries bear responsibility to take decisive action to end the catastrophe in Gaza, which poses a threat to regional peace and prosperity and global economic stability.

He stressed the importance of condemning the atrocities committed in Gaza, urging the G20 countries to exert pressure for meaningful actions to end the war in Gaza and support a credible, irreversible path towards a two-state solution.

He emphasized the importance of international institutions fulfilling their commitments and being clearer in their positions, especially in dealing with the tragic situation in Gaza.

In his statement, Prince Faisal said the “escalation and spread of global conflicts have placed pressures on international cooperation and weakened the credibility and trust in the multilateral framework.”

He also congratulated Brazilian Foreign Minister Mauro Vieira on his country's assumption of the G20 presidency for 2024.


Saudi Arabia, US Discuss Developments in Gaza

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah met Wednesday with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken. SPA
Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah met Wednesday with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken. SPA
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Saudi Arabia, US Discuss Developments in Gaza

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah met Wednesday with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken. SPA
Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah met Wednesday with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken. SPA

Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Faisal bin Farhan bin Abdullah met Wednesday with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken on the sidelines of the G20 foreign ministers’ meeting in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro.

During the meeting, the ministers discussed the latest developments in the Gaza Strip and its surroundings.

The Saudi minister also held a separate meeting with his Egyptian counterpart, Sameh Shoukry, on the sidelines of the G20 meeting.

The two top diplomats discussed the deep-rooted relations between the two countries and ways to enhance them in various fields, as well as the latest regional and international developments, mainly in Gaza and its surroundings.