In Iran: The Past is a Different Country
In Iran: The Past is a Different Country
“The past is a different country; there they do things differently!” This is how English writer L. P. Hartley, in his novel “The Go Between”, comments on the ambiguity of our relations with a past that fascinates and confuses us. I was reminded of Hartley’s enigmatic phrase last week as I skimmed through a series of news stories indicating the discovery by the Khomeinist establishment in Tehran of Iran’s past.
There was Islamic President Hassan Rouhani advising US President Donald Trump not to ignore Iran’s “7000-year old civilization” in stark contradiction to Ayatollah Khomeini’ claim that the whole of Iranian history before his seizure of power should be classified as “Jahiliyah” (Darkness).
Then there were the so-called “reformist Khomeinists” who took US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to task for expressing support for what he saw as “the national uprising in Iran.” They invited Pompeo to remember Dr. Muhammad Mussadeq, the man who served as Prime Minister of Iran in the early 1950s and, so his supporters believe, was overthrown in a putsch backed by the United States. “Mussadeq was the hero of Iranian national uprising,” one Khomeinist apologist commented. He forgot that according to the propaganda of the regime he has served for almost four decades Mussadeq was “a traitor and enemy of Islam” and that he had become a non-person in the Islamic Republic.
You may also remember the recent brouhaha made about the discovery of mortal remains reportedly belonging to a mummy of Reza Shah the Great. According to the governor of Rey, the place where the remains were discovered, the mummy was quickly reburied “with full respect” on orders from “Supreme Guide” Ali Khamenei. What a contrast with the campaign by Ayatollah Sadeq Giwi (alias Khalkhali), one of Khomeini’s key associates, to have the Pahlavi king’s mummy burned in public.
And what about this surprising comment by Islamic Environment Minister Ibrahim Kalantari that “for over 7000 years Iranians knew how to manage their natural resources”, an art that has disappeared during the four decades of Khomeinist rule, threatening Iran with “total destruction”?
Nostalgia for the past doesn’t stop there.
Tehran’s government-controlled media are full of stories about ancient relics, old buildings and historic sites that recall Iran’s glories over millennia. Even hoses that once belonged to the grandees of the ancien regime, and the Qajar dynasty before that, are featured admiringly amid calls for them to be classified as national treasures and preserved. Again, what a contrast with the heady days of four decades ago when Khomeini and his cohorts fanned the fires of rage and called for destruction of whatever reminded Iranians of the past.
Nostalgia for the good old days that had initially been branded “the bad old days” is not limited to historic events and figures or relics and buildings. Scavenging in the past the Khomeinist clique is also beginning to discover other “goodies”.
Last May the Islamic Deputy Foreign Minister Jaberi Ansari astounded European Union officials when, in a visit to Brussels, he suggested that an association accord signed between the Shah’s regime and the then European Economic Community in 1975 be revived restoring to Iran a series of privileges that the Islamic Republic today couldn’t even dream of. Under the agreement signed by the then Iranian Economy Minister Hushang Ansary and the Common Market’s Commissar for Foreign Trade Lord Tugendhat, Iran was given tariff-free access to its agricultural and manufactured goods and granted special facilities for raising capital on European markets.
That is not all. Facing almost total diplomatic isolation, the Khomeinist clique have also revived the idea of a regional cooperation framework that could include Iran, Turkey and Pakistan on the lines of the regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) outfit that Iran created under the Shah.
The Islamic Chief of Staff Gen. Muhammad Baqeri is also chasing another elusive gazelle from the past: a system of military cooperation with Turkey and Pakistan. Such a gazelle existed under the Shah and was called the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). It also included Great Britain as full member and the United States as associate member. (The US didn’t become a full member because Iran did not accept the NATO-like arrangement under which, in case of war, troops of all member states would be under US command. Iranian law prohibited putting Iranian troops under foreign command; a reason cited by the Shah for refusing to send troops to the wars in Korea and then Vietnam while Turkey did take part under US command.)
Islamic Foreign Minister Muhammad-Jawad Zarif, too, has rediscovered an enticing piece of the past in the form of two cooperation accords signed between Iran and the United States in the1950s to give a legal framework to American humanitarian aid to Iran, mostly in the form of mass vaccination and the building of schools and clinics under President Truman’s CARE and Point IV scheme which continued until 1964 when Iran announced it no longer accepted foreign aid.
Zarf’s argument is that those accords contradict Trump’s threatened decision to impose new sanctions on the Islamic Republic.
The Khomeinist clique has also discovered that before the mullahs seized power Iran had visa-free travel agreements with 34 countries, including virtually all present-day members of the European Union. Today, however, the reaction of all those countries to Zarif’s demand to restore the agreement is stark: It was then, and this is now!
Another discovery by the Khomeinist clique concerns the 1972 accord with Afghanistan regarding the sharing of waters from four border rivers: Hirmand, Parian, Harirud and Farah. Having denounced the accord as a betrayal of Islam, the Khomeinist clique is now demanding Kabul to implement it to save large chunks of Iran from economic death due to shortage of water.
At the opposite side of the country, the clique has rediscovered the 1975 Algiers accord with Iraq under which the two neighbors share sovereignty over the border estuary Shatt al-Arab. Last Tuesday President Hassan Rouhani threatened to shut the Shatt al-Arab, presumably to prevent Iraq from exporting oil if and when Trump tries to impose an oil export ban on Iran. What Rouhani didn’t know is that Iraq isn’t exporting oil through the Shatt al-Arab and that Iran’s refusal to implement the Algiers Accord has prevented the dredging operations needed to reopen the estuary and reactivate the Iraqi port of Basra and tis Iranian sister-port of Khorramshahr.
Khomeini, and his successors, branded all accords that Iran signed under the Shah as “a Zionist conspiracy against Islam.” Now they are trying to eat humble pie in the hope of regaining some of the privileges Iran lost when they seized power.
However, in Iran today, as in Hartley’s novel, the past remains a different country where people do things differently.